Arunachal Horticulture

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Jul 17, 2013: An Overview of Arunachal Horticulture... read more


An Overview of Arunachal Horticulture

General feature:

Arunachal Pradesh has tremendous potential for growth of horticulture sector which could be judged from the fact that 21.49% ( 18 lakh Ha) has been identified suitable for horticulture crop cultivation out of TGA of 8374300 Ha. The State has all kinds of agro-climatic conditions ranging from tropical to temperate enabling the farmers to grow different kinds of crops such as Apple, Kiwi, Walnut, Plum, Pears and Peach, dry fruits, Orange and other Citrus fruits, Pineapple, Banana, Ginger , Turmeric, Chilly Tomato and important Medicinal and Aromatic plants. However , the current prioritised crops  commercially being grown are Apple, Kiwi, Mandarin Orange, Pineapple, Large Cardamom and Ginger. The State has covered about 1.09 Lakh Ha under various horticulture crops which constitutes only about 5% of total available area. The current production is about 3.65 Lakh MT.

Current ongoing programs:

Horticulture Mission for North East and Himalayan states (HMNEH): This mission was launched during 2011 and is the main flagship programme for overall development of horticulture. Farmers are given assistance for creation of gardens under various crops in which inputs such as seeds/planting materials, fertilizers, plant protection chemicals, tools and equipments etc are given on subsidy basis. Assistance is also given for establishment of Private and Public nurseries for production of planting materials, green house for protected cultivation etc. In marketing sector, assistance is given for establishment of rural or primary market, retail market and also terminal markets. Other infrastructures like Collection Centres, On farm handling units etc are also provided under the programme. It is 100% funded by GoI .

National Mission on Medicinal Plants:  In this mission, assistance is given to framers for cultivation of various medicinal plants on subsidy basis. Arunachal Pradesh is a natural store house of medicinal plants and hence farmers can avail the schemes of this programme for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants which is used in preparation of AYUSH medicines. This

National Bamboo Mission:  Under this mission, assistance is given to farmers for cultivation of various types of bamboo species found in Arunachal Pradesh and other states.

National Mission on Micro-Irrigation:  In this mission, farmers are assisted in installation of Micro-irrigation like Drip Irrigation, Sprinkler Irrigation etc in their gardens to enhance the production. In this scheme, 50% assistance is provided by GoI, 10% is provided by Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh and 40% is farmer’s contribution.

Rasthriya Krishi Vikaash Yojna: This programme has been initiated by the GoI to incentivise the State which spends more fund on agriculture and allied sectors. Generally, all schemes which are not taken up in CSS schemes are taken up as gap filling and farmers are given assistance ranging from maintenance of garden, tools and equipments, plastic crates etc.

State Plan Schemes:  Under state plan schemes, various need based schemes are taken up such to up keep the functioning of the department as well as some pertinent schemes which not covered under CSS.

NEC Schemes:  It is project based schemes with cost ranging from Rs. 2 Crore to Rs. 5 Crore. Farmers and entrepreneurs can avail the benefit after DPR is properly approved by the State Government and prioritised for funding by NEC.

Growth of Horticulture sector during 11th Plan period:

During 11th Plan ( 2007-12), the state has covered about 1.08 lakh Ha under various horticultural crops and with total production of 365306.3  MT. The total resource utilization (of available land) has been raised to 6% . Fruit sector occupies the highest area and production (78.5 % and 84.5% respectively). Although vegetable occupies only 1.6 % in area, its contribution to production is about 11.9 % in compare to 3.54% in Spices with an area of 15%. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP) is a new venture, which occupies about 4.7 % of total area, however, the production of MAP is in a very nascent stage.

During 2011-12 the total fruits production was 308860.3 MT from an area of 85110 Ha, vegetable production was 43500 MT from 1740 Ha and spices production of 12946 MT from 16370 Ha.

Area expansion in prioritized crops:

Mandarin Orange:

Among the fruits Mandarin Orange is the oldest cultivated major fruit of the state which is now being exported albeit in an un-organized manner due to lack of market infrastructures and channelization. It is given top priority in area expansion being the principal sub-tropical fruit. Current area and production of orange is 39046 Ha and 175707 MT. It occupies 45.8 % of total area under fruit crops and contributes about 56.8 % of total fruit production. Area expansion in Mandarin Orange is being taken up in East, West and Upper Siang districts, Lohit, Lower Dibang Valley, Some parts of Upper Subansiri, Papum Pare, East Kameng districts.


Pineapple is another important sub-tropical fruit of the state which occupies 14% and contribute about 21.6 % of total fruit production. Currently area and production under Pineapple is  11925 Ha and 66780 MT respectively. In all Siang districts, Lohit, Lower Dibang Valley, Some parts of Upper Subansiri, Papum Pare, East Kameng, area expansion of Pineapple has been promoted under various programmes.


Apple is most important temperate fruits of the state  covering about 13866 Ha (16.2 % of area under fruits) area with production of 30505.2 MT (9.8% of total fruit production). Apple of Arunachal Pradesh is at par with that of Himachal and Kashmir in terms of quality and size. With the introduction of exotic verities and dwarfing rootstocks, the apple production has increased many folds to marketable surpluses. It is cultivated mainly in the temperate areas of West Kameng and Tawang districts and expansion is being done to other potential areas like Mechuka of West Siang, Anini and Anjaw districts.


Kiwi has been introduced during 2001-02 under Technology Mission programme and at present the state is highest producer of Kiwi in the country. The current area under Kiwi is 3027 Ha and production is 4540.5 MT . It is mainly cultivated in West Kameng district, Tawang and Ziro area of Lower Subansiri district. Kiwi cultivation is being expanded to West Siang, Anini, Anjaw, Lower Dibang Valley, Tirap and other temperate areas. There is huge expansion potential for this crop in the state.


Although walnut is not being given due importance like that of Apple and Kiwi, it has huge scope due to its high price as well as keeping quality. Currently it occupies 4780 ha and production of 573.6 MT albeit scattered and not properly maintained.


Under Spices, total area expanded is 16370 Ha with production of 12946 MT. Ginger and large cardamom are the two prioritized crops. Under Ginger, an area of 2450 Ha was brought under cultivation which gave production of 12250 MT during 2011-12, while large cardamom covered the area of 13920 ha with production of 696 MT. Future expandable area under Large Cardamom lies in Siang belt, Lower Subansiri, Lohit, Anjaw, Changlang, Tirap etc while ginger can be grown in large area in Lower Dibang Valley, Lohit West, East and Upper Siang, Papum Pare etc.

New focussed area under crop diversification:


The introduction of commercial floriculture in four crops viz. Rose, Anthurium, Carnation and Gerbera, under protected cultivation of about 145 Ha in the state has been made through implementation of Technology Misson / National Horticulture Mission.  The current production of cut flowers is expected to be 18.4 million numbers. Cultivation of flowers in protected structures is giving lot of self employment to young people, especially ladies. Foothill area of Pasighat , Itanagar, Lohit , roing etc are found to be suitable for Anthurium and Gerbera while cooler areas of Rupa ( West Kameng) Khonsa , Basar (West Siang) are found suitable for rose and carnation.

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants:

The state has huge scope in cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Under National Mission on Medicinal Plants, efforts has been made to promote high altitude medicinal plants such as Piccrorhiza kurroa, Aconitum heterophyllum, Nardostychys jatamansi, Taxus baccata,  Swertia chirata and low altitude aromatic plants like Aqualaria agallocha, Emblica officinalis, Acorus calamus, Stevia rubidiana etc. Citronella, Patchouli and lemon grass are aromatic plants promoted under various programme. Currently an area of 5148 Ha is under MAP.

The state has high scope of promoting High Altitude Medicinal Plants having high demands in Chinese and Tibetan Medicines such in Tawang, West Kameng , upper reaches of West Siang, Upper Subansiri, Anini, Kurung Kumey, Upper Subansiri and Anjaw districts.

Thrust Areas:

* The identified thrust areas for 12th Plan are as follow:

* Commercialization by way of diversification of horticultural activities.

* More emphasis on income generation crops like spices, High Altitude Medicinal Plants, floriculture, mushroom etc.

* Expansion of area under horticulture with emphasis on utilisation of abandoned land, especially jhum land.

* Strengthened Extension & training supports.

* Research and Development back up for location specific technology.

* Strengthening of nurseries for provision of Quality Planting Material.

* Increasing productivity and improving quality of produce.

* Combating of prevalence of pest and disease with special emphasis on Scab Control Programme and Citrus Decline Management.

* Management of post harvest technology.

* Strengthening Marketing Infrastructures, Processing and value addition of horticultural produces.

* Stress on compact area plantation.

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